Gaza 1950 Armistice Agreement

In March 1949, when Iraqi forces withdrew from Palestine and handed over their positions to the smaller Jordanian Legion, 3 Israeli brigades maneuvered into advantageous positions as part of Operation Shin-Tav-Shin and Operation Uvda. The operations allowed Israel to renegotiate the armistice line in the southern Negev (which provides access to the Red Sea) and the Wadi Ara area in a secret agreement concluded on March 23, 1949 and incorporated into the General Armistice Agreement. The Green Line was then redesigned in blue ink on the southern map to give the impression that a green Line had been moved. [8] The events that led to a change in the Green Line were an exchange of fertile land in the Israeli-controlled Bethlehem area and the transfer of the village of Wadi Fukin to Jordanian control. On the 15th. In July, when the Israeli army expelled the population of Wadi Fukin after the village had been moved to Israeli-occupied territory under the ceasefire agreement between Israel and the Kingdom of Jordan, the Joint Ceasefire Commission ruled by a majority on 31 August that Israel had violated the ceasefire agreement by pushing villagers across the demarcation line. and decided that the villagers should move into their own homes. However, when the villagers returned to Wadi Fukin on 6 September under the supervision of Un observers, they found most of their homes destroyed and were again forced by the Israeli army to return to the Jordanian-controlled area. [9] The Israeli-Jordanian GAA was established on March 3. It was officially signed in Rhodes in 1949 by Colonel Ahmad Sidqi Bey al-Jundi for the Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan and by Reuven Shiloah and Colonel Moshe Dayan on behalf of Israel. The real breakthrough and terms of the deal were actually made during secret talks between King Abdullah and Israeli representatives at the king`s palace in Shuna. The Israeli-Jordanian GAA left a number of issues, such as Jewish access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem`s Old City and Jordanians` access to the south via Bethlehem Street, which were to be resolved in subsequent negotiations.

But the failure of secret peace negotiations between Israeli officials and Abdullah in 1949 and 1951, the assassination of the king in July 1951, and the resulting rapid deterioration in Israeli-Jordanian relations blocked the resolution of these outstanding issues. Nevertheless, with many ups and downs, this agreement has been maintained for almost twenty years as a more or less effective framework for relations between the two states. On January 6, 1949, Dr. Ralph Bunche announced that Egypt had finally agreed to begin talks with Israel on an armistice. Talks began on January 12 on the Greek island of Rhodes. Shortly after its creation, Israel agreed to the release of an Egyptian brigade besieged in Falujah, but quickly revoked its agreement. [5] At the end of the month, the talks broke down. Israel has called on Egypt to withdraw all its forces from the former Mandatory Territory of Palestine. [Citation needed] Egypt has insisted that the Arab armed forces, in accordance with Security Council resolution S/1070 of 4 November 1948, withdraw from the positions they adopted on 14 November 1948. October 1948, and that Israeli forces withdrew to positions north of the Majdal-Hebron road. The proper functioning of this Joint Ceasefire Commission is also reflected in the fact that an agreement has been reached allowing Israel to use part of a Lebanese road to allow contact with an Israeli settlement near the Lebanese border, for which there is currently no other means of contact. According to the Comprehensive Ceasefire Agreement, the implementation of this new ceasefire line, which is defined in the agreement itself, was to be completed within fifteen weeks.

During these fifteen weeks, United Nations observers affiliated with the Joint Ceasefire Commission of the Israeli-Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan worked sixteen hours a day or more, traveling around the area in their jeeps, visiting the affected villages, holding municipal meetings to inform villagers of the upcoming change and their rights and obligations under the Comprehensive Ceasefire Agreement. and the attempt to eliminate difficulties through local agreements and minor adjustments to the proposed route. The agreement with Lebanon was signed on March 23, 1949. [2] The main points were as follows: 3. The Parties to this Agreement may at any time revise this Agreement or any of its provisions by mutual agreement or suspend its application, with the exception of Articles I and III. In the absence of mutual agreement and after the entry into force of this Convention one year after its signature, either Party may request the Secretary-General of the United Nations to convene a Conference of representatives of both Parties to consider, revise or suspend any provision of this Convention other than articles I and III. Participation in this Conference shall be compulsory for Parties. The name comes from the green ink used to draw the line on the map during ceasefire talks were underway.

[2] After the Six-Day War, the territories conquered by Israel beyond the Green Line were designated as East Jerusalem, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula (the Sinai Peninsula has since been returned to Egypt under the 1979 peace treaty). These territories are often referred to as territories occupied by Israel. In the early years, Israel had to absorb a large influx of immigrants, including several hundred thousand near-destitute Holocaust survivors and a large influx of Sephardic Jews from Arab states who felt increasingly insecure in their home countries after the Arab defeat in 1948. As a result, in 1950, the Knesset passed the Law of Return, which granted Jews immediate citizenship. However, this law proved controversial later, when the question “Who is Jewish?” raised other questions in the Jewish state, including the immigration of non-Jewish parents, religious conversion, and, given the Orthodox monopoly on these issues, the question of who is really qualified to be rabbinic. Ben-Gurion`s coalition has also been frequently disrupted by disputes over education and the role religion should play in it. Orthodox support for the government often wavered over what they saw as state interference in a religious field. The four agreements also provided for a mechanism for monitoring and dispute settlement. The United Nations managed a ceasefire monitoring organization (UNTSO) composed of a corps of officers from various countries, headquartered in a no man`s land in Jerusalem and empowered to investigate complaints of violations of the AGM. These complaints were also decided by joint ceasefire commissions, each headed by a senior United Nations official. Complaints of serious violations were forwarded by the parties to the UN Security Council, which based its deliberations on the reports of the UNTSO Chief of Staff.

2. The Special Committee shall be established immediately after the entry into force of this Agreement and shall see to the development of agreed plans and modalities for such matters as may be referred to it by a Party, which shall in any event include the free movement of vital roads; including Bethlehem and Latrun-Jerusalem streets; the resumption of the normal functioning of cultural and humanitarian facilities on Mount Scopus and free access to them; free access to the Holy Places and cultural institutions and use of the Mount of Olives Cemetery; resumption of operation of the Latrun pumping station; power supply of the old town; and the resumption of the operation of the railway to Jerusalem. On February 24, the Israeli-Egyptian ceasefire agreement was signed in Rhodes. [1] The main points of the armistice agreement were as follows: The new military borders for Israel, as set out in the agreements, covered about 78% of Mandatory Palestine as it stood after the independence of Transjordan (now Jordan) in 1946. The Arab-populated areas that were not controlled by Israel before 1967 were the Jordanian-ruled West Bank and the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip. The first year of existence of this Agreement shall end on 23 February 1950. Although many complaints were submitted to the Joint Ceasefire Commission, which sometimes seemed intractable due to the attitude of both parties, a solution was finally found and both parties were willing to accept it. It must be recognized that the Comprehensive Ceasefire Agreement concluded by those two States had the desired effect, namely, to put an end to hostilities in order to facilitate the transition from the ceasefire imposed at the time to a lasting peace in Palestine. I cannot speak enough about the conscientious efforts of the members of the Egyptian-Israeli delegations to the Joint Ceasefire Commission to find satisfactory solutions to the complaints raised by both sides.

The main tasks assigned to the four Joint Armistice Commissions under the General Armistice Agreements were to prevent any resumption of hostilities, to organize the exchange of prisoners of war, to establish permanent ceasefire demarcation lines in accordance with the principles set out in the General Armistice Agreements and to define the Implementation of provisions to facilitate the transition to lasting peace in Palestine. Negotiations over the division of Jordanian waters in the early 1950s yielded no results, so Israel had to move forward with its own plan to divert much of that water to the south of the country. Syria`s attempt to divert the sources of the Banyas River in 1965 provoked Israeli threats and attacks that ended Syrian diversionary efforts. .

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